Sunday, 15 January 2017

William Baillie: How did he do it ?

Jan van Goyen 
(1596-1656)

"Gesicht op Alphen by Leyden"

was one of Hollands great Golden Age landscape painters. And an equally great drawer. Famous in their own time paintings and drawings were sold and collected all over Europe by the important and the wealthy: Rembrandt, Pieter Molyn, Jan de Bisschop, the Ruisdael brothers, Paulus Potter, Adriaen van Ostade and many other great drawers of the Dutch landscape. 


Market in a Duch village near a river. 
Many of van Goyens landscape drawings I learned are kept in the collections of the Amsterdam Rijksmuseum (follow the link here*) and available for viewing on line.





Some details showing the markings left by the instruments ("Roulettes") to simulate pencil drawing:



Although it looks every bit a pencil drawing this: "View on Alphen near Leyden",  however is not a drawing but an engraved copy I found recently in a charity shop. It was created by Irish engraver William Baillie (1723-1810) who besides his military career was an eminent amateur artist. Baillie was hired by the Duke of Bute, John Stuart  (1713-1792), Prime Minisister of Great Britain 1762/63 to create engraved copies of works in his art collection. 


Jan van Goyen: view on Leyden
Stuart had studied in Leiden, the obvious place to have been aquainted with van Goyens paintings and drawings and possibly the place where he bought his drawing "view on Alphen near Leyden". After his political career Stuart later became a patron of the arts. 


Baillie is also known to have owned several original Rembrandt (1606-1669) etching plates. He reworked the worn out plates and, not to every ones taste altered Rembrandt's composition of the "three trees on a hill" print by adding clouds and lightning. He'd better not. 



 Three trees: Rembrandt and Baillie 

Obviously he owned Rembrandt's plate of the famous traveling elephant Hansken too.   
Hansken: Rembrandt and Baillie

I could not find van Goyens original drawing "View on Alphen near Leyden" and I cannot say it has survived, one of Stuarts homes suffered from fire. But comparing it with others in the Rijksmuseum it is amazing to learn Baillie was able to create an engraved copy that with the naked eye is hardly distinctable from any actual washed and "soft" pencil drawings by van Goyen or any other artist. 


Baillies copy of Stuarts drawing by Pieter Molyn (1595-1668)

Invented in Britain, in the late 17the century, "Mezzotint" engraving grew into a craze during the 18th century used to copy entire collections of Old Masters paintings, portraits etc.. It was also called the "Black Art", starting with a black plate, rubbing in the lighter parts with instruments called "Roulettes".  



The duke of Devonshire hired Baillie's colleague engraver Richard Earlom (1743-1822) to copy his art collection including his many paintings by Claude Loraine (1602-1682) (below). Loraine was William Turners' (1775-1851) inspiration, read here*). 




Studying drawings by van Goyen I noticed he was intrigued by the artistic possibilities of depicting the mechanical tackling device called in Dutch a "Putmik" or "Puthaal" (English  .....?) used for hauling water buckets or freight. The strong diagonals of the contraption breaking the horizontal and vertical  landscape composition attracting strongly the eye and leading through the composition. He used it often: when shipsails or yards were not available.   





Here are some examples of this device that was in use in rural areas into the 20th century.




Cornelis Dusart (1660-1704) after Adriaen van Ostade (1610-1685). 
Dusart used van Ostades studio in Haarlem after his death. 


All pictures embiggen by mouse click
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All pictures borrowed freely from the Internet for friendly, educational and non commercial use only. 

Wednesday, 11 January 2017

Gladys Hadkinson (IV): her fathers family

Gladys Hadkinson (IV) 
her fathers family. 

Gladys' father Charles Richard Hadkinson for a reason not yet understood, had settled from Smyrne to the Greece" mainland around 1890; expansion of the family business, political reasons ? And what lead him and his brother later to Alexandria ?  


Charles and his sister Lilian (1874-1972)

Charles owned an estate (he is mentioned as "farmer") near Krivolak in Macedonia, and is also mentioned as a mine director and probably served in 1910/20's in the Britsh Armed Forces on the Balkan. His three children were born in Macedonia. After WW1 Smyrne was occupied buy the Greeck but in 1922 Kemal Ataturk liberated the region. Now all the mainland is Turkish. 


From the 17th century several European countries controlled the profitable Levantine trade. First of all the Dutch, controlling the trade from Amsterdam but the British and the French and many other European countries participated. 



All nations established consulates organizing legal and diplomatic services, trading houses, transport (ships) business, consuls, diplomats etc.. Many families came to stay, we find generations of European settled in their own communities and marriages between "European Greecs" were frequent. A very international and prosperous society. 
    

Smyrne (now Izmir) is a natural harbour situated on the East coast of Turkey, one of the important classic cities like Troie, of ancient Greece. It was and is the gateway to the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean world), the  Middle-East (through ancient Aleppo in Syria) and connected through the silk-route to Persia, India and the far east. 




Ancient Greece World and modern Greece after 1922
    
Gladys grandfather Robert Hadkinson (Smyrne 1840-1924) was born in Smyrna as oldest son of Charles Hadkinson (1815-1881) who was born in Malta while his father James Hadkinson (1788-1855) originated from Manchester and married in Malta 1814 Scottish Amalia Johnson (Moffat Sc. 1798-1866 Manchester) but after a few years settling in Smyrne around 1820. They followed trading routes and "the money" to the Levant. 

Smyrna harbour around 1895
Founding the first olive oil factory in the mid 1870's Robert Hadkinson soon after owned several more factories near the sea growing into Anatolia's largest oil producer at the end of the 20th century owning two sunflower-, four sesame-, six cottonseed and ten olive- oil factories. He imported steam engines from England to power his factories. His mother Constanza Makritz (1822-1894) was born in Lussino (Croatia) but her name indicates a possible German descent. Robert had 10 brothers and sisters.   



Robert Hadkinson came to lead the British olive-oil & soap factories financed by investors in London in which also several brothers were involved. It is not far fetched assuming the Hadkinson family around this time was of considerable financial means.  


Robert married Anna Elisabeth Keun (1846-1911) from a 4th generation Smyrne Keun family of diplomats. Her great-grandfather Abraham Keun came to Smyrne as consul appointed by the Dutch VOC "Levantine Chamber" from Amsterdam, which was residing in newly build the "Palace on the Dam" in the late 18th century. 


Prosperous Amsterdam around 1775 seen by Hendrik Keun (not related) 

Consul Abraham Keun and administrator Jean Jacques Dutilh, who was also to become one of Gladys' ancestors settled in Smyrne both marrying a daughter of George Boddington the British Consul. The Fantozzi and Purdie family's (above) were also (high) officials in Smyrne's administration. Dutilh was from French Huguenot descent, his protestant family  fled persecution from Bordeaux after 1685 (Edict of Fontainebleau) to Amsterdam.  


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This completes more or less my research in Gladys Hadksinson's ancestors and family. Please send any information, corrections or comments for sharing. 


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All pictures borrowed freely from the Internet for friendly, educational and non commercial use only.   
   

Tuesday, 10 January 2017

Gladys Hadkinson (III) her mothers family.

Gladys Hadkinson (III)

(her mothers family) 

Researching a bit further into the life and history of the artist Gladys Hadkinson today I share these results: her mothers family. Ernestine Hadkinson-Seiffert obviously tried hard to invest in the education of her children. She wrote to the well known and respected painter etcher (and orientalist) Philippe Zilcken probably to have them(?) accepted as his students. 


Zilcken owned a famous collection of antique and oriental shoes. He started his collection after the Amsterdam World Exhibition of 1883 in Amsterdam, the worlds first colonial and orientalist exhibition, and was later donated many specimens. Also by Ernestine Hadkinson-Seiffert described in 1901/02 as living in "Saloniki".
   

Ernestine Seiffert was the eldest daughter of three children by the musician Carl August Heinrich Seiffert and Constance Marie Dorothea Lubeck. 

Ernestine was born 1863, her brother Henri in 1866 and her sister Wilhelmina Constance in 1867, all born in the Hague. 


British author and music critic Bernard Shaw probably heard Ernestine's brother Henri Seiffert play. He is mentioned in his published  1890-1893 reviews of "Music in London". Henri's 1893 autograph showed up in Ebay recently.     
Wilhelmina never married, she died 1943, while Henri became a well known international violinist living in Potsdam near Berlin until around 1937 visiting London in 1893 (above).

Prinsengracht the Hague, where the Royal Music School was (Joh. Weissenbruch) around 1850 when August arrived in the Hague  
August Seiffert was born in Postdam near Berlin 14-1-1822 as son of Ernst Seiffert and Wilhelmina Hendricks and came to the Hague as a musician in 1851, probably appointed as a teacher in the Royal Music School, lead by Johan Hendrik Lubeck, at the Prinsengracht and/or musician in the Royal "Hofkapel". Students in the Music School were also allowed and invited to play "surnumérair" in the Hofkapel, serving as a training centre. In 1860 he married Constance the daughter of the Music School's first director Johann Heinrich Lubeck in the Hague. I assume Lubeck knew August, he may well have been his wife's nephew.  


In Potsdam (and Beskow) lived a musical Seiffert family with another later quite famous member: musicologist Max Seiffert (1868-1948). The violinist Henri probably later returned to his roots living in Berlin/Potsdam. 

August Seiffert was appointed (4th) conductor in 1870 of the "Haags Toonkunst Koor" a well respected choeur later led by famous conductors like Willem Mengelberg. August Seiffert lead the choeur for 15 years 1870-1885. August's father in law J.H. Lubeck was to be it's first conductor (1834-1860), a family business.
  
         
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Johann Heinrich Lübeck 
(Wesel, Germany. 11-2-1798 - 7-2-1865 the Hague, Netherlands)
(son of Johan Henri Lubeck and Christine Steinhart) 
(Knighted in 1842)


Virtuoso violinist and composer, studying with Louis Spohr, probably in Kassel, and M. Bauver (Bauer, Beauvet ? I was not able to identify this musician) and music-theory in Potsdam. Potsdam was a musically important centre founded by music loving Frederick the Great (1712-1786) living in his nearby palace "Sans Souci". I suppose in Potsdam he met his future wife Wilhelmina Seiffert while studying music theory.    



His teacher Louis Spohr (1756-1843) and Nicolo Paganini (1782-1840) considered the greatest violinist virtuosos of their (maybe all) time. 

Johann Heinrich Lubeck worked and travelled as virtuoso and musical director all over Germany: in Leipzig, Berlin, Riga, Stettin, Danzig and Königsbergen before settling 1823 as concert-master in Amsterdam and a few years later was appointed concert-master, violinist and conductor and first director 1827 in the Hague Royal Music school) and royal teacher to princess Louise van Oranje (1828-1871) granddaughter of King Willem-I who founded the school in 1826. She became the later queen of Sweden.



With Johan Hendrik Lubeck (Dutch spelling) we also find his two  brothers in the Hague: 
Frederik Wilhelm Lubeck (b. around 1811 - 1850) an international violinist pianist and composer. He probably studied with his elder brother becoming later first violinist of his "Hofkapel" and teacher in his royal music school. He later was appointed concert-master in Hannover (Germany) and:
Johann Josef Lubeck, also a musician in the "Hofkapel". His son Adriaan settles in Semarang Netherland East-Indies, his grandson Paul Lubeck was also a violinist and music teacher.  

J.H. Lubeck by mr. engraver Willem Steelinck sr. (1826-1913)
Lubeck married (probably in Potsdam) Maria Wilhelmina Seiffert (b. Potsdam – d. 1876 the Hague) they had three children:

Louis Lubeck (the Hague 1838- 1904 Berlin) who was a composer en cellist living in Leipzig and in Berlin.


Ernst Lubeck (the Hague 1829 - 1876 Paris) an international pianist but who went insane, living in Paris.
Constanze Marie Dorothea Lubeck (The Hague 1831- d. after 1894 ?). She was Gladys' grandmother who married August Seiffert (possibly her nephew).

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Please send additions, corrections, suggestions and comments. 

Next: Gladys Hadkinson's Levantine ancestors in Smyrne/Izmir.   
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All pictures borrowed freely from the internet for friendly, educational and non commercial use only. 

Monday, 9 January 2017

Gladys Hadkinson II: continued

Gladys Hadkinson (II)
(Macedonia/Greece 1895 - 1925 Paris)
 new information & continued



Last week a nice lady from the Hague emailed me. She'd started investigating a portrait drawing of a Indonesian noble boy (prince ?) in the "Kraton" (a palace of a Iocal Indonesian ruler) bought in an auction and since decades in her cherished possession, her late husband had been of Indonesian descent. Thus she found Gladys Hadkinson in the Blog. 


The drawing is dated 1919 and since Gladys is registered living (off and on) in the Hague 1911 - 1921 I assume she was visiting her sister Dorothy (read later) who, after marrying had emigrated to the Dutch East-Indies in 1915. My research into the artist Gladys Hadkinson started with finding this etching in a local car boot  and over the weeks has revealed a highly intriguing history worth sharing. 


Starting with what I know about her direct family: she was born and spend her youth with her younger brother Ronald Oliver (b.1897)  and elder sister Dorothy (b.1892) in an estate in Krivolak, Macedonia, a pretty desolate region, where her father Charles Hadkinson was a "farmer" no doubt in the olive and soap business started by his father in the late 19th century in Smyrna/Greece, now Izmir/Turkey. Much more about his family later. Charles Hadkinson I also found mentioned in the Macedonian Allchar mining business as a director.  



How her father and mother met is still a riddle but we find the Hadkinson family living in the-Hague Netherlands 1911/1921 arriving shortly before the outbreak of WW1: in the Halmstraat (1911/14) and later in the Daendelstraat 76 (until 1921 when mother Ernestine and daughter Gladys moved to Munich). Her mother writing from London and the Hague in the late 1890's and early 1900's. I think they choose settling in the Netherlands for the education of their children.  



The-Hague had been the birthplace of Gladys' mother Ernestine Seiffert (1863 - Surabaya 1928). She was from a very musical family: more later. Charles Hadkinson probably returned regularly to his Macedonian estate. He is also mentioned as a military in the British forces in Macedonia during WW1. The Hadkinson family travelled between London and the-Hague finally moving to Munich in 1921. Gladys died in Paris in 1925 and her mother in Surabaya in 1928. I will tell more about Gladys' Dutch maternal and Greek/British/Dutch/Italian/Turkish paternal ancestors in next posting. 



Gladys' sister Dorothy Hadkinson married in the-Hague in 1914 and 1915 emigrated with her husband Friedrich Neumann through London to Surabaya, Java in the Dutch East-Indies. His Neumann family had a long history as clerks, residents and plantation owners in Amboina (Ambon archipelago) and probably had arrived in 1792 with one Gottlieb Neumann sailing as a German soldier in the Dutch East-India company (VOC) (much more later). In 1916 her brother Ronald Oliver, aged 19, sailed for Medan with the steam-freighter SS Menado (below) probably to visit his sister. 



Gladys will have spent some 10 years in the Hague roughly between the age of 16 and 26 and probably was taught artistically privately by Philippe Zilcken (1857-1930) the etcher working and living in the Hague. Her mother had been in contact  with Zilcken from London in the late 1890's until 1907. I found Ronald-Oliver Hadkinson later living in London, before WW2. We know Gladys went to Paris, to study, but died tragically, only 29 years old in or shortly after giving birth to her daughter Sylvia Georgina Ruth Hadkinson in 1925.


The marriage between her parents Charles and Ernestine must have ended in separation because a year after her mother Ernestine died in Surabaya (living or visiting her daughter and grand-daughter Sylvia ?) in 1928 her father Charles Hadkinson (1865-1924) remarried in Athens but already having fathered a daughter Gladys Artemis (b. 1924) and Robert Theodor (b.1925). Charles Hadkinson died 1942 in Alexandria (Egypt) as did his younger brother Richard Hadkinson in 1943. 


Gladys' daughter Sylvia (left) was probably raised by her sister Dorothy Neumann-Hadkinson who'd emigrated to the Dutch East-Indies in 1915. I was not able to find if she and her husband  had any (other) children.  In the ships passengers list I found Dorothy Neumann-Hadkinson sailing from London in 1933 with SS Baloeran (below leaving Rotterdam) to Egypt. 





Somehow Sylvia found her way back to the Netherlands because shortly after WW2 she married Louis Kampman and started a family in Haarlem, then emigrating in 1952 to Brisbane, New South Wales, Australia. Where I also found Dorothy Neumann-Hadkinson. Sylvia Kampman-Hadkinson died in 2011. One of her daughters (Iris b. 1948) today is living in Brisbane. 


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With the publication of my personal research into the life and family of the short lived artist Gladys Hadkinson I sincerely hope not to have intruded in any family affairs. All the information revealed was, with some perseverance, found in the Internet. Next will be the highly interesting international ancestors of Charles Hadkinson 
(entrepreneurs) from Smyrne (now Izmir in Turkey) and Ernestine Seiffert (musicians) in the Hague originally from Germany. 

I have requested the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam for sending me the (not available for the public) correspondence of Ernestine Hadkinson with the etcher Philippe Zilcken, probably the teacher of her daughters and works of art, probably a bequest by Gladys sister Dorothy Neumann-Hadkinson, held in its archives. 


If you happen to stumble over this posting and have any knowledge for sharing about the persons mentioned and are willing to share please send.



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All pictures borrowed freely from the Internet for friendly, educational and non commercial use only.